Maybe not everyone knows that asthma is the most common chronic disease among children, but not only children are affected. In fact, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), asthma affects about three hundred million people and about 80% of asthma cases are caused by allergy.
Allergic asthma occurs as a result of a chain of biological events following the reaction between the sensitizing substance and immunoglobulins located on bronchial mucosa mast cells in allergic subjects. This binding causes the release of inflammatory substances, such as histamines, leukotrienes and cytokines that induce contraction of the bronchial muscles. The reduction in the caliber of the bronchi leads to breathing difficulties, which occur with the characteristic wheezing, chest tightness and coughing.
These episodes (crises) occur sporadically with varying periods of “good health” between each crisis .
According to the clinical severity of the disease, asthma can be classified as:
- mild asthma – not more than one/less crisis a week
- moderate asthma – at least two episodes a week, with coughing and wheezing between crises
- severe asthma – shortness of breath (dyspnea) with frequent crisis
Exposure to airborne allergens, such as mites, pollen, mold and animal danders, can trigger asthma.